Table PR-619 .
The first order rate constant kapp for IF decomposition in different operating parameters.Current density (mA cm−2)pHIF concentrationmg L−1kapp (s−1)R24.86.549.4 (0.19 mM)1.3 × 10−40.9996.41.4 × 10−40.9989.61.7 × 10−40.99916.02.5 × 10−40.997552.5 × 10−40.999203.8 × 10−40.997510.2 × 10−40.9994.0502.5 × 10−40.9988.02.5 × 10−40.9999.52.5 × 10−40.991Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
The aforementioned radical is more efficiently produced at elevated current density, which enhances the drug removal. However, following analysis showed in Fig. 1 i.e. the reduction in IF concentration resulting from the charge passed (Q), one can conclude that the removal efficiency of IF decreases with increasing current density. At Q = 2.4 Ah L−1 the observed percent decrease in drug concentration was 86%, 77%, 70%, and 51% for the values of current density of 4.8, 6.4; 9.6 and 16 mA cm−2, respectively. This fact can be connected to the more advanced oxidation of intermediate reaction products oxidation and/or wasting the energy in side reactions.
Reaction temperature plays an important role during hydrothermal liquefaction as solvent behavior changes with temperature. Supercritical point of methanol and ethanol is lower than that V5 Epitope of water. Biomass liquefaction behavior in sub-/supercritical water and supercritical alcohol is different because of difference in hydrogen generation activity, reactivity, and solubility of various products in these solvents. Studies have been carried out to understand the effect of temperature on liquid product yield of rice straw under supercritical methanol and
Formation of ineffective chlorine during humic Biotin-HPDP chlorination were conducted in 45-mL glass screw-cap amber vials with PTFE-lined septa under headspace-free condition at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C) and pH 7.0 (5 mM phosphate buffer). The applied free chlorine dose was 5 mg/L as Cl2. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of humic acid were varied from 0 to 15 mg-C/L. After 30 min reaction, the total chlorine, free chlorine, NH2Cl and ineffective chlorine were determined.
To investigate the aldosterone composition of residual chlorine including ineffective chlorine in finished and tap waters, the total chlorine, free chlorine, NH2Cl and ineffective chlorine in four collected water samples (DWTP1, TW, DWTP2 and DWTP3) were examined. DWTP1 sample was stored in dark at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C) to study the ineffective chlorine change over time. The total chlorine, free chlorine, NH2Cl and ineffective chlorine were measured at 4 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively.
Cotton gin dust (CGD) and cotton gin waste (CGW) were provided by Hantex Textile Residues Ltd. (Gaspar, Brazil) with a 7 wt% moisture content (wet basis). The commercial enzyme preparation Cellic CTec2® was obtained from Novozymes Latin America (Araucária, Brazil) and the microorganism used in the L-690,330 experiments was the Thermosacc® Dry S. cerevisiae strain from Lallemand (Milwaukee, USA).
2.2. Pretreatment factorial design
Pretreatment of the cotton gin residues CGD and CGW was investigated through a 22 factorial design in which the macrophages following conditions were used: catalyst concentration (NaOH) of 2 and 4 wt% (0.2 and 0.4 g g−1 of dry biomass, respectively) and temperature (100 and 120 °C) (Table 1). Also, three replicates were performed at 110 °C and 3 wt% NaOH, which corresponds to the center point of the factorial design. The pretreatment TS (or the solid-to-liquid ratio in relation to the dry biomass) and the residence time at the desired temperature were established at 10 wt% and 60 min as recommended by Silverstein et al. (2007).
Difference of XCO2 from GOSAT and SCIAMACHY on the average in the five continents (unit: ppmv).Eurasian continentAfrican continentThe north American continentMainland South AmericaOceania mainlandGOSAT373.289375.972374.114377.729378.2SCIAMACHY384.752387.246383.22385.01385.061Difference11.46311.2749.1067.2816.861Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
5. Conclusions and discussion
The carbon satellites are providing valuable data to improve global models of the carbon ML324 and to make more accurate predictions of global climate change. Measurements by the carbon satellites allow scientists to monitor the geographic distribution of CO2 sources and to map the natural and human emissions. It becomes possible to simulate interaction mechanisms between cleaner production, the carbon cycle and climate change.
A simulation system for XCO2 surfaces is being developed on the basis of HASM (simply termed as HASM system), which takes satellite remote sensing data as its driving field and ground observation data as its optimum control constraints. The XCO2 surfaces from satellite remote sensing are difficult to be directly used as the driving fields because of a large number of voids caused by clouds, aerosols and the high surface albedo. It is necessary to conduct void filling for constructing the HASM system.
Fig. 11 shows the rate constants at different reaction temperatures for the three tested fly ashes.
Fig. 11. Plot of Arrhenius law for the carbonation of fly ash at different temperatures.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The estimated values of Ea for S1, S2 and S3 fly ashes are 46.4 kJ/mol, 41.1 kJ/mol, and 34.5 kJ/mol respectively. These values are much better in terms of KU-60019 requirements compared with the values of 180 kJ/mol and 98 kJ/mol for direct gas solid carbonation between CaO and CO2 in the absence and presence of 15% water in the system, respectively ( Wang et al., 2007). However, Sun et al. (2012) obtained an even lower activation energy value of 12.7 kJ/mol for the carbonation of brown coal ash-derived leachate. However, since the overall carbonation reaction is exothermic in nature, there is no requirement to provide energy into the system. Compared to direct gas solid carbonation, the present system of aqueous carbonation at mild temperatures and pressures with continuous stirring would provide an efficient method of CO2 sequestration.
Fig. 5. Breakdown of carbon footprint results for main food product categories.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Another important aspect is that the model used links GHG emissions with the cost of products, but different food categories have different prices. As a consequence, emissions and dapt secretase per cost of product represent an interesting indicator for carbon and energy intensities of each product category. These results are presented in Figs. 6 and 7. In terms of energy intensity, 90% of the products have an energy consumption ranging from five to ten MJ per € of the final price. High variability can be found in the potatoes, vegetable and fruit category due mainly to the energy consumption in the different conservation strategies (from fresh to frozen products) and the high quantity of packaging per unit of product.
Fig. 6. Distribution of energy intensity within each class of product expressed as MJ/€.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide